Profile of Sikkim State

  Sikkim formally became part of the Indian Union in 1975 as India's 22nd state.

  Spreading over an area of 7,096 sq kms, this landlocked state, Sikkim comprises of 4 Districts, 9 Subdivisions, 453 Revenue Blocks and 452 villages.

  Situated at an altitude of approximately 27 deg. North and longitude of approximately 88 deg. East. 

  It has a very thin population of only 5.40 lakhs (2001 census) with a population density of 76 per sq. km.

  Out of the 4 districts, the East Sikkim district is the most populous         one.

  Farming and tourism are the mainstay of public life.

Profile of East Sikkim District

         East Sikkim is situated in the south-east corner of the state

         Location : 88˚27 to 88˚56E longitude  and 27˚9 to 27˚25 N latitude with an altitude range of 300-500 m above MSL

         Agro-climatic Zone : Sub tropical humid to temperate alpine

         Agro-ecological situation. : Hotspot of Bio-diversity

         Av. temp. : 17-30˚c in summer and 5-20˚c in winter

         Avg. annual rainfall : 3894 mm (mostly during May -  Sept.)

         Soil type : Inceptisol (42.84 %), Entisol (42.52 %) Mollisol (14.64 %)

         Land type :  Steep Terrain

         Major Crops : Rice, Maize, Finger millet, Pulses, Mustard, Soyabean

         Major fruits   : Sikkim Mandarine (Orange)

         Vegetables   : Seasonal and Off season vegetables

         Spices          : Large cardamom, Ginger, Turmeric

         Livestocks : Cattle, Goat, Sheep and Pig (both indigen. & crossbred), Yak, Poultry (Desi & improved)

         East Sikkim is one of the four administrative districts of  Sikkim

         Area : 954 sq. km

         Population : 2,44, 790 (2001 Census)

         The HQ of East Sikkim is Gangtok, which is the state capital.

         It is the hub of all administrative activity in the state.

         The district has 3 sub-division, 4 major towns, 120 revenue blockS, 14 forest blocks, 273 panchyat ward and 50 panchayat unit.

         Nepali is the predominant language in the region besides Bhutia and Lepcha

 

Major farming systems existing in the district* (based on the study made by the KVK)

 

No

Farming systems identified

1

Maize based farming system :- Maize (main crop ) followed by rice, finger millet, urd, soybean, field pea, cluster beans, mustard, vegetables, ginger, turmeric etc.

2

Rice based farming system :- Paddy (main crop) followed by maize, mustard, field pea, potato, wheat, vegetables as secondary crops .

3

Mandarin based farming system :- Mandarin plantation (Main crop) intercropping with ginger, maize, wheat, buck wheat, mustard, field pea, vegetables etc.

4

Large cardamom based farming system :- Large cardamom is planted in shady area under shades of various tree species ( Covering 40% of cultivated land)

5

Agro-forestry based farming system :- The agro-forestry plants and the fodder plants are the major crop along with  spices crops like large cardamom, fruit crops like pine apple etc. The Himalayan alder (Alnus nepalensis) is the most prevalent fodder species adopted in this system

 

 

Description of Agro-climatic Zone (based on soil and topography)

 

No

Agro-climatic Zone

Characteristics

1

Tropical

Below 610 m MSL

2

Sub-tropical

610 to 1524 m MSL

3

Temperate

1524 to 2743 m MSL

 

Description of major agro ecological situations (based on soil and topography)

 

No

Agro ecological situation

Characteristics

1

AES - I

High altitude (1501-6500 m MSL), Low temperature (0-10C), Rainfed

2

AES II

Medium altitude (801-1500 m MSL), medium temperature (10-20C), Spring channel +Rainfed

3

AES - III

Low altitude (300 - 800 m MSL), high temperature (12-28C), Channel irrigation + Rainfed

 

 

Soil types

 

No

Soil type

Characteristics

Area in ha

1

Haplum brepts and Pachic Haplum brepts.

Soils developed on ridges of 30% slope are deep, some what excessively drained, fine loamy surfaces having slight stoniness and moderate erosion. The soil types are predominantly under forest, paddy, and maize to limited extent, soils are acidic and prone to erosion.

1535.94

2

Typic Hapudolls and Umbric Dystrochripts.

Soils on ridges on 15-30% are deep excessively drained, coarse loamy to fine loamy surface with slight stoniness and moderate erosion. Soils are moderately acidic and rich in humus contain. These areas are also predominantly under forest, paddy and maize.

2070.18

3

Cumilic Haplum brepts and Pachic Haplum brepts.

Soils less than 15% slopes are deep well drained, fine loamy soils with loamy surface, slight stoniness and moderate erosion. These areas are under paddy cultivation and some under temperate forest. 

267.12

4

Haplodolls, Cumilic Haplodolls, typic Dystrochrepts Cumilic Dystrochrepts Typic Haplun brepts etc.

The soils on ridges of steeply sloppy hill sides (30-50%) slopes are moderately shallow to deep, well drained, silty to fine loamy soils with slight stoniness and moderate erosion. The soil is acidic and stony surface. They are largely under temperate forest. Alpine forest and some are under cultivation of cereal crops.      

22791.06

5

Typic Haplo Dystrovchrepts, Entice Haplodolls, Typic Haplum brepts etc.

Soils on ridges of more than 50% slope are moderately deep developed on steep sloppy hills, excessively drained, coarse loamy to fine loamy soil with slight stoniness and moderate erosion. Soils are moderately acidic, dark brown to dark yellows and rich in humus. Unterraced lands are susceptible to severe erosions. These are largely under temperate forest covers and some maize.       

23640.12

# Source : Strategic Research and Extension plan of East Sikkim, 2006

 Land use pattern of east Sikkim

Total geographical area

:

95,400 ha

Total forest area

:

72,668 ha

Net sown area

:

18,122 ha

Fallow land                  

:

7,849 ha

Land put on non- agricultural use           

:

4,871 ha

Cultivable land

:

10,500 ha

Pasture and grass land

:

1652.96ha

Gross cropped area

:

31900 ha

Cropping intensity

:

150%

Total geographical area

:

95,400 ha

Total forest area

:

72,668 ha

Net sown area

:

18,122 ha

Fallow land                  

:

7,849 ha

 

 Area, Production and Productivity of major crops cultivated in the district (Enter data strictly in ha, qtl and qtl/ha respectively)

 

No

Crop

Area (ha)*

Production (qtl)*

Productivity (qtl /ha)*

Cereals

 

1

Rice

5500

85000

15.47

2

Wheat

1430

28100

19.65

3

Maize

8760

137300

15.67

4

Finger-Millet

1000

8600

8.60

5

Barley

420

4500

10.71

6

Buckwheat

650

5800

8.92

7

Other cereals

17760

269300

15.16

Food Grain

19600

286900

14.64

Pulses

1

Urd

390

2800

7.18

2

Other pulses

2230

20400

16.74

Oil seeds

1

Rapeseed & Mustard

1920

13900

7.24

2

Soybean

790

7400

9.37

3

Other oilseeds

2710

21300

7.86

Fruits

1

Orange

2250

41700

18.55

2

Other fruits

4120

72300

38.05

Vegetables

1

Rabi

1200

55200

45.82

2

Kharif

900

43800

48.76

3

Off season vegetables

890

47500

53.44

Potato

1

Rabi

1300

63900

49.21

2

Kharif

750

33300

44.40

3

Other roots & Tuber

120

5800

47.00

Spices

1

Cardamom

3600

8300

2.31

2

Ginger

2210

116900

53.14

3

Turmeric

130

4500

34.62

4

Other spices

5940

129700

21.82

* Source : Sikkim, A Statistical Profile - 2006-07

* = no change of unit is allowed

 

Weather data

Month

Rainfall (mm)

Temperature 0 C

Relative Humidity (%)

Maximum

Minimum

Maximum

Minimum

September, 2007

595.50

26.20

18.79

89.93

66.36

October, 2007

122.50

25.10

16.86

89.06

58.74

November, 2007

37.90

21.44

11.93

87.00

49.00

December , 2007

0.00

17.20

8.90

86.19

47.70

January, 2008

9.80

15.6

7.6

85.4

50.12

February, 2008

05.20

17.72

7.23

83.41

41.58

March, 2008

4.50

22.81

12.28

84.06

45.5

April , 2008

335.9

25.00

14.9

87.2

49.8

May , 2008

185.4

26.4

16.5

87.5

50.0

June , 2008

699.3

26.2

24.6

89.6

68.3

July , 2008

517.4

26.0

19.9

90.0

71.6

August, 2008

608.8

26.9

20.18

89.4

67.12

Source: Meteorological Observatory, ICAR Sikkim Centre, Tadong, Gangtok 737 102

Production and productivity of livestock, Poultry, Fisheries etc. in the district

Category

Population

Production

Productivity

Cattle

           Crossbred

3119

 

 

           Indigenous

51537

 

 

Buffalo

           Male

168

 

 

           Female

435

 

 

Sheep

          Crossbred

218

 

 

          Indigenous

158

 

 

Goats

32504

 

 

Pigs

 

 

 

         Crossbred

4882

 

 

        Indigenous

9232

 

 

Yak

1418

 

 

Rabbits

2740

 

 

Poultry

        Hens

20235

 

 

       Desi

14063

 

 

       Improved

6172

 

 

Ducks

248

 

 

Turkey and others

 

 

 

Fish

 

 

 

      Marine

 

 

 

      Inland

2500000

160 000 kg

3404 kg/ha

Prawn

 

 

 

Shrimp

 

 

 

Source: Indian  Livestock Census, Sikkim , 2003